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Trabzon is and important city according to its strategical position and one of the oldest trade port city on the black sea. During its history Trabzon mentioned by many historians, became an important Roman and Byzantine center, when occupied by Latin, capital of Trebizond Empire in 1204-1261, then added to Ottoman State by Mehmed II.
Visiting: After breakfast visiting Hagia Sophia Museum, Gulbahar Hatun Camii and Ataturk Kıosk, then move towards to Sumela monastry. Have lunch in monastry vicinty. After lunch we will visit Sümela Monastry then to back to hotel.
Tour includes: Transportation, parkings, highway and bridge fees, accomodation at agreed stars, breakfast, lunch, dinner, museum entrances.
Tour not includes: Beverages, tips and personal expenditures.
The Hagia Sophia church in Trabzon was constructed between 1238 and 1263 when Trabzon was the capital of the Empire of Trabizond during reign of manuel I. After Mehmet II. conquered the city in 1461, the church was converted into a mosque and its frescos covered in whitewash. The monastery next door continued to be used by monks as late as 1701. When the city occupied by Russians it was used as a makeshift hospital and depot. Afterwards it was put back into use as a mosque, until 1964 when it was turned into a museum. Between 1958 and 1964 the surviving frescoes were uncovered and restaured. The church bell tower is 40 metres high. It was built in 1427 and also contains frescoes. The bell tower was also used as an observatory by local astronomers.
Gulbahar Hâtûn Mosque or Hâtûniye Mosque is a mosque constructed by Selim I. for his mother Gulbahar Hatun in 1514. Except mosque and turbe, other buildings, madrasa, kitchen, a primary school, turkish bath and dar’ul kurra (where different manner of reading of Qur’an was taugth) were disappeared in time. The mosque entrance is covered with five small doomed portico. The main part of mosque is covered with a big dome, winged with two rooms used as zaviye (a kind of islamic monastery). The mihrab (niche) and minber (pulpit) of mosque are made of marble. Instead of pulpit have a simple workmanship, mihrab is decorated with flower and stalactite designs.
From inscriptions it is understand it was restored in 1885. The preserved decorations inside the mosque are from that period.
The Kiosk is situated on the Soguksu ridge dominating the city in a foresty region, constructed by Kostantin Kabayanidis in 1890 as a summer house. The building reflects affect of European and West Renaissance architecture and very ostentatious European symbols are used. Instead of building is constructed with stone, from inside bagdadi technique is used. The ground is decorated with tiles carry influence of same period and same tecniques. In 1924 when Ataturk visited Trabzon stayed in the kiosk between 15 and 17 of semtember. In 1931 the kiosk was presented to Ataturk by Trabzon city hall members as a gift. Later period is bougth from Ataturk sister and converted to museum in 1943.
The Sumela Monastery is a greek Orthodox monastry dedicated to Virgin Mary constructed on a steep cliff at an altitude of about 1,200 metres high. It is a site of great historical and cultural significance, as well as a major tourist attraction within Altındere National Park. The monastery was founded in 386 during the reign of the Emperor Theodosius I. According to the legend two Athenian monks, Barnabas and Sophronios, founded the monastery. It became famous for an icon of the Virgin Mary, said to have been painted by the Apostle Luke. During its long history, the monastery many times was restored and enlarged. It reached its present form in the 13th century. Following the conquest by Ottomans in 1461, it was granted the sultan’s protection and given rights and privileges that were renewed by following sultans.